Diabetes mellitus (English: Diabetes mellitus ) is a metabolic disease also known as diabetes. The disease is characterized by high blood sugar, decreased insulin performance, and relative insulin deficiency.  Common symptoms include excessive thirst (polydipsia), frequent urination (polyuria), and weight loss.  Symptoms include increased appetite (excessive addiction to sweets), fatigue, and delayed wound healing.  Symptoms often appear slowly. 
Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), adult onset diabetes. 
diabetic definition universal blue circle symbol 
Excessive thirst, frequent urination, weight loss, loss of appetite 
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, diabetic ketoacidosis, heart disease, stroke, diabetic retinopathy, kidney failure, disability.   
The onset of the disease
Middle-aged or elderly. 
Long term. 
Obesity, lack of hard work, history of hereditary diseases.  
Blood test. 
Keeping weight normal, exercising, controlling eating habits. 
Dietary changes, metformin, insulin, bariatric surgery.    
The possibility of recovery
Lifespan can be reduced to about ten years. 
392 million or 39 crore 20 lakhs. (2015) 
The presence of excess sugar in the blood can lead to many chronic complications such as heart disease, stroke, diabetic definition retinopathy (which can lead to blindness), kidney failure and poor blood flow to the limbs which can lead to disability.  Sudden rise in blood sugar can lead to a condition called hyperglycemic hyperglycemic state. However, the diabetic definition is less likely to cause ketoacidosis.  
Initially, diabetes is defined as obesity and lack of physical activity.  Some people are genetically at risk for the disease.  About 90% of all diabetic patients have diabetes. The remaining ten percent are primarily type 1 diabetics and have gestational or gestational diabetes.  In type-1 diabetes, the loss of pancreatic beta cells leads to a decrease in the body’s total amount of insulin, resulting in a loss of glucose balance.  
diabetic definition is partially preventable.?
It is possible to prevent this disease by keeping the weight normal, regular physical exercise and controlled diet.  The primary treatment is exercise and diabetic diet.  If blood sugar cannot be controlled in this way, medicine is considered.   Some people need insulin.  Those taking insulin may need to have their blood sugar levels checked regularly, but those who are on medication may not need it.  Bariatric surgery may help control diabetic obesity.  
The rate of diabetes has risen sharply since 1980, in parallel with obesity. As of 2015, about 392 million people have been diagnosed with diabetes. In 1975, the number was about 30 million.   The disease usually affects the middle-aged or the elderly,  although at an alarming rate, young people are also being infected.   Living with diabetes can reduce life expectancy by up to ten years.  Diabetes was one of the first described diseases.  The importance of insulin in this disease was determined in 1920. 
The most important symptoms of diabetes
Symptoms of diabetes include polyuria or frequent urination, polydipsia or excessive thirst, polyphagia or excessive hunger, especially addiction to sweet foods and weight loss.  Other symptoms seen during diagnosis include blurred vision, itching, peripheral neuropathy, recurrent vaginal infections and fatigue.   Some patients with diabetes develop a hyperglycemic hyperglycemic state. 
Complications of diabetes mellitus
diabetes is basically a chronic disease in which the lifespan is reduced to about ten years.  The complications of this disease are partly responsible for this. The risk of cardiovascular disease increases two to four times. These include ischemic heart disease or heart attack and stroke. Decreased blood flow to the lower arms or legs increases the risk of disability by 20 times. Hospitalization rates also rise.  In the developed world and increasingly elsewhere in the world, traumatic blindness and kidney failure are one of the leading causes.  The disease is associated with increased risk of mental retardation and dementia.  Other complications include dermatitis, impotence and frequent infections. 
Both lifestyle and genetic factors are responsible for developing diabetes.   Some of these issues are under the control of individuals such as eating habits, obesity. Again some issues are not under the control of the individual such as aging, female sex and genetics.  Insomnia is thought to be linked to type 2 diabetes.  The effect of sleep on the body’s metabolism is thought to play a role in this.   The intestinal bacteria Prevotella copri and Bacteroides vulgatus are related to the diabetic definition. 
The effects of lifestyle on diabetes, such as obesity, weight gain, lack of physical activity, unhealthy eating habits, stress and the effects of urbanization are all factors that contribute to diabetes.   Excess body fat is associated with the disease in 30% of Chinese and Japanese, 70-80% of Europeans and Africans, and 100% of the inhabitants of Pima Indian and Pacific islands.  Smoking increases the risk of diabetes.  Diet has certain effects on diabetes, such as excessive consumption of sugar or sugary drinks.   The type of fat in the diet is important, as saturated fats and trans-fatty acids increase the risk of diabetes, while many unsaturated fats and single unsaturated fats reduce the risk.  Excessive amounts of white rice are thought to increase the risk of overeating.  Lack of physical activity is responsible in 8% of cases. 
Main article: Diabetic definition What are the genetic causes of type 2 diabetes mellitus?
Numerous genes are responsible for diabetes. Each gene contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes.  If one of the identical twins develops type 2 diabetes, the other person is more than 90% more likely to develop diabetes. In case of different twins this probability is 25-50%.  As of 2011, more than 38 genes related to the type 2 diabetic definition have been discovered.  Most genes associated with diabetes are involved in beta cell activity. 
Diabetic’s relationship with medicine and disease
There are many medications and health problems that increase the tendency to diabetic.  Important drugs are glucocorticoids, thiazides, beta blockers, atypical antipsychotics, phenytoin.  and statins.  People with pre-existing diabetes mellitus have a much higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes.  Other health problems associated with diabetes include: acromegaly, Cushing’s syndrome, hyperthyroidism, pheochromocytoma, and some cancers such as glaucoma.  Testosterone deficiency is associated with type 2 diabetes.  
Diagnostics Edit diabetic definition ?
Does insulin ineffectiveness (on the right side) increase blood sugar levels?
Insulin dysfunction is one of the leading causes of type 2 diabetes.  As a result of insulin resistance, many other tissues or cells, including muscle, liver, and adipose tissue, do not respond adequately to normal levels of insulin. Insulin resistance or dysfunction As blood glucose levels rise to normal levels of insulin, insulin secretion from the pancreas increases to control glucose levels.  In sensitive individuals, the beta cells of the pancreas fail to secrete insulin in response to excess demand, leading to progressive insulin deficiency. Insulin in the liver usually reduces glucose secretion. When there is insulin resistance, more glucose is secreted into the blood from the liver. 
Diagnosis Edit ?
Template: OGTT According to the World Health Organization, a diabetic (both type-1 and type-2) is defined as having an elevated blood sugar once and its symptoms or double blood sugar levels: 
Blood glucose on an empty stomach ≥ 6.0 mmol / l (128 mg / dl)
Glucose tolerance test Two hours after oral glucose intake, blood glucose is. 11.1 mmol / l (200 mg / dl).
It can also be called diabetic if the randomized blood glucose is 811.1 mmol / l (200 mg / dl) and the symptoms are present.  or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 748 mmol / mol (7.5%) Intravenous blood has a lower concentration of glucose than arterial or capillary blood. However, the glucose concentration of venous plasma is more reliable for diagnosis. In 2009, an international team of experts consisting of the American Diabetes Association, the International Diabetic Federation, and the European Association for the Study of Diabetic Definition recommended that HbA1c be defined as a diabetic definition at 746 mmol / mol (7.5%).  The American Diabetes Association adopted the recommendation in 2010.  Blood glucose should be re-tested if it is higher than> 11.1mmol / l (> 200 mg / dl) and with no symptoms.
 Diabetic definition Diagnosis involves testing for glucose tolerance and adjusting blood glucose during starvation or looking for HbA1c and complications of the disease, such as retinopathy.  The advantage of HbA1c is that there is no need to starve and the results are very stable. Estimates of average glucose levels over the last three to four months are available. The downside, however, is that the test is expensive.  HbA1c levels are lower in anemia and during pregnancy. davi It is estimated that 20% of diabetic patients in the United States are unaware of their disease.   On the other hand, the opposite of type-1 diabetes occurs.
Absolute insulin deficiency occurs when the beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed. There is another type of disease called gestational diabetes mellitus or gestational diabetic definition which raises blood glucose levels after pregnancy even if it is not diabetic before pregnancy.  Type-1 and type-2 can be distinguished based on the patient’s symptoms.  If there is any doubt about the diagnosis, then type 2 can be confirmed by antibody test for type 1 and C-peptide levels.  C-peptide levels are normal or higher for type-2 but lower for type-1.  In addition to blood tests, urine tests also play an important role in diagnosing diabetes. When blood glucose rises, glucose is also found in the urine, which is called glycosuria. The presence of albumin protein in the urine indicates diabetic definition nephropathy. Insulin deficiency increases the amount of ketone body in the blood so ketone can be found in the urine of diabetic patients.
Diabetic definition Mellitus type 2 prevention
With proper nutrition and regular exercise, the onset of type 2 diabetes can be prolonged or prevented.   The risk of diabetic definition can be halved by major lifestyle changes.   The benefits of exercise do not depend on the person’s initial weight or subsequent weight loss.  High levels of physical activity can reduce the risk of diabetes by about 26%.  However, there is limited evidence to reduce the risk of diabetes by controlling eating habits rather than physical activity.  Evidence has been found that eating more green vegetables is beneficial.  Drinking less sugary drinks is beneficial.  People with low glucose tolerance can reduce their risk of becoming diabetic simply by controlling their diet and exercising, or by taking metformin or acarbose drugs.   Lifestyle changes are more effective than metformin.  A 2016 review found that long-term lifestyle changes reduced the risk of diabetes by about 26%.  Although vitamin D deficiency has been shown to increase the risk of diabetes, taking vitamin D3 supplementation does not reduce the risk. 
The medical management of diabetics focuses on a number of factors, such as lifestyle changes, reducing the risk of cardiovascular and other vascular diseases, and maintaining normal blood glucose levels.  Emphasis is placed on educating patients on the definition of diabetic and on their own blood glucose testing.  However, for those who do not take frequent doses of insulin, the importance of self-glucose testing is questionable.   Urine tests may be performed on those who are reluctant to have a blood glucose test. 
 Keeping systolic blood pressure below 140 mmHg reduces the risk of death and has relatively good results.  Strict blood pressure control (<130/60 mmHg) slightly reduces the risk of stroke but does not reduce the overall risk of death compared to standard blood pressure control.  Strict control (HbA1c <6%) does not play a role in reducing mortality, as opposed to controlling the ideal blood glucose level (HbA1c 6-7.9%).   Keeping or keeping blood glucose in <7.2 mmol / L (130 mg / dl) while starving. These targets vary from patient to patient.    Definition of type-2 diabetic All patients are advised to have regular eye examinations.  Treatment of gum disease and regular dental scaling should be done. 
The definition of diabetic treatment is based on proper diet and exercise.  Excessive exercise is more beneficial  Exercise controls blood glucose, lowers body fat, and lowers blood lipids.  Physical activity controls HbA1c and increases insulin sensitivity.  A diabetic diet that reduces weight is very important.  Low glycemic index or low carbohydrate rich foods are beneficial in controlling blood glucose.   Low calorie foods are encouraged because they contribute to diabetic control.  Vegetarianism does reduce the risk of diabetes, but does not provide much benefit compared to those who eat moderate animal foods. .  There is no evidence that cinnamon lowers blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes.  Medications should be considered if blood glucose levels are not controlled within six weeks of those with mild diabetic lifestyle changes. 
Editing medicine ?
Metformin 500 mg. Tablets
Metformin is the first choice among the various types of diabetic definition drugs. Metformin has been shown to reduce the mortality rate of diabetic patients.     People with kidney and liver disease should not take metformin.   Other types include sulfonylurea, thiazolidinedione, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, SGLT-2 inhibitor and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue.  The differences between these drugs are very small in terms of efficacy.  According to a 2016 report, sodium glucose co-carrier-2 appears to be better than other drugs.  The drugs included in thiazolidinedione are pioglitazone and rosiglitazone. Rosiglitazone lowers blood sugar but is not very effective in the long run.  In addition, it increased the risk of heart attack, so it was withdrawn from the market in 2010.  Drugs such as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors such as enalapril, captopril, etc. are beneficial for diabetics and kidney patients.   A 2016 report suggests that treatment should be done if the systolic blood pressure is between 140-150.  Insulin can also be taken if diabetic control is not controlled by a controlled lifestyle and oral medication.  Insulin is used as the main drug during pregnancy.  Vitamin D plays a role in reducing insulin resistance in the case of type-2 diabetic definition. 
Surgical editing diabetic definition ?
[[Bariatric surgery | It is possible to control diabetic definition through weight loss surgery.  After surgery, many people can control their blood glucose levels with little or no medication  and reduce mortality.  The mortality rate during surgery is less than 1 percent.  There is no clear criterion as to whether the body mass index is appropriate for surgery.   
The spread of the ?
In 2014, the definition of diabetic using data from 195 countries was shown on the regional expansion map.
As of 2015, approximately 392 million people worldwide have type 2 diabetes, accounting for 90 percent of all diabetic patients.   This number is equivalent to 6 percent of the world’s population.  The prevalence of the disease is almost equal.  However, the incidence is lower in the underdeveloped world.  Women and some ethnic groups   such as South Asians, Pacific islanders, Latinos, and Native American groups are at greater risk.
 This may be due to some ethnic groups becoming accustomed to Western lifestyles.  Although type 2 diabetes is traditionally considered an adult disease, obesity and the definition of type 2 diabetes are increasing in parallel among children today.  The definition of type 2 diabetes is similar to that found in young people in the United States.  The number of diabetic patients worldwide was about 30 million in 1985, increasing to 135 million in 1995 and 218 million in 2005.  It is considered to be one of the main reasons for its availability.  The top five countries with diabetes for the year 2000 were India (31.6 million), China (26 million), the United States (16 million), Indonesia (74 million) and Japan (6 million). ).  The World Health Organization has already recognized diabetes as a global epidemic. 
diabetic definition history editing?
Diabetes is one of the few diseases described at the very beginning of the history of the disease.  Excessive urination is mentioned in ancient Egyptian scripts around 1500 BC.  The first described patient is thought to be type 1 diabetic.  Around the same time, ancient Indian Ayurvedic physicians discovered the existence of the disease and named it diabetic after seeing the patient’s urine attracting ants. In Sanskrit, honey means sugar and urine by meh.  The Greek physician Apollonius of Memphis first coined the term diabetic in 230 BC.  The disease was rare during the Roman Empire. The famous Greek physician Gaylene commented that he had seen only two diabetics in his professional life.
 Between 400-500 AD, type-1 and type-2 diabetics were first identified as two separate diseases by two ancient Indian Ayurvedic practitioners, in their book, respectively. There, they said that type-1 is related to youth and type-2 to being overweight.  Until the first half of the twentieth century, there was no effective treatment for the disease. Insulin was discovered in 1921 and 1922 by two Canadian scientists, Frederick Curved and Charles Best.  The long-acting Neutral Protein Hagedorn (NPH) insulin was then invented in the 1940’s.